Crustose or squamulose primary thallus followed by a secondary fruticose thallus comprised of hollow stalk-like podetia (stalk-like fruiting bodies) with fruiting bodies at the tips.
Thick or thin crusts firmly attached to the substrate. Placodioid lichens are crustose but lobed at the margins and leprose lichens have a powdery appearance.
Leaf-like lobes usually attached to the substrate by rhizines (root-like outgrowth of fungal filaments).
Tufted and shrubby, erect or pendant and attached to the substrate at a single point. Filamentous lichens are soft and hair-like.